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The Apostles, St. Paul, and the Evangelists

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Here is a useful list of the twelve apostles, those men who Jesus solemnly chose, instructed and trained at the beginnings of his preachings, like his most particular disciples, in charge of preaching and of hunting the devils. The "Twelves", like they are called, received the Holy Spirit, in Jerusalem, along with the other disciples, on the day of the Pentecost following the death of Jesus. The Apostles have a prominent role during the preachings of Jesus, and too after his death. They are further considered, by both the Roman Catholics and the Orthodoxs, like those from who the Apostolic Tradition is established, which makes the bishops their successors. The number of 12 apostles is a reminder of the 12 tribes of Israel and signify the new Christian people, as renewed by the New Covenant. Judas, as far as he betrayed Christ, will be replaced thereafter by Matthias, who is chosen by casting lots. St. Paul, strictly, is not a apostle as he was not named by Christ but came to Christianism after his vision of his way to Damas, Syria. As James, Peter and John will mostly orient their preaching towards the Jews, they do accept that Paul, as far as he is concerned, with Barnabas, do towards the pagan nations, awarding to them the title of the "Apostles of the Gentiles", of the 'gentes', or 'goyim' -the non-Jewish peoples from a Jewish point of view

Paul was born in Tarsus, Cilicia, in a pious and zealous, Pharisaic Jewish family, as his father however was a Roman citizen, hence Paul too. The first origin of that family might have been in Galilea. Paul's Jewish name was Saul but he already bore too his Roman name of Paul. Saul was taught as a living to manufacture the mohair of which tents were made. He was sent young then to Jerusalem to attend the school of Gamaliel, a Jewish doctor of the law. Nothing is known then until Saul appears among those who martyrize St. Stephen. Taking an active part into the persecution of the early Christians, Saul, as riding to Damascus, Syria, for further persecutions, is struck by an apparition of Jesus along the route, throwing him to the ground and having him temporarily losen the sight. That was in the year 35 A.D. Eventually rescued by the Christians, converted and cured as far as his sight was concerned, Saul, who chose to be mostly known now under his Roman name of Paul, began to preach what he had persecuted. Paul however was moderately active and then settled back in Tarsus, his home town until about the year 43 A.D. Barnabas, at that time and as the early Church of Jerusalem had been scattered by the persecution of Herod Agrippa I, came to search him to begin an apostolate. Since the year 45, it came that Paul and Barnabas specially felt, and were affected to, attracted to the evangelization of the non-Jewish world of the time. In three large missions -or 'Apostolic journeys', they set to preach in various countries, like Cyprus and southeastern Asia Minor (45-49), Asia Minor back, and Greece (50-53), and Asia Minor and Greece again (53-57). The main aspect of the work of Paul was that he had preached to non-Jewish peoples, leading to have Peter, for example, to recognize that the non-Jewish to who the New Covenant was preached had not to turn to the various Jewish practices. After his return in Judaea, the Jews managed to have Paul imprisoned by the Romans in Caesarea whence Paul eventually decided to appeal, in his quality of Roman citizen, to Caesar, in Rome, in 59. Shipwrecking on the way on the shores of Malta, Paul spent two years in Rome, taking the occasion to spread the new religion. Paul was eventually acquitted of any charge in about 62. Before reaching swiftly back to his churches in the East, he probably made a quick sojourn in Spain, and maybe transiting on the return through southern Gaul. Being arrested a second time by the Romans, in 66, likely for fear of the disorders caused in their provinces of Asia, Paul eventually suffered martyrdom in 67 in a place in Rome called Aquae Salviae, some East from the Ostian Way as we was buried two miles from there, where later the basilica of San Paolo fuori le mura was built. Because he had the prerogatives of a Roman, Paul was beheaded. Paul's feast was celebrated on June 29, with the one of Peter and then transfered to the next day for cause of the two celebrations performed the same day by the Pope and his attendants being to exhausting, especially at a time which the beginning of summer in Rome. Along his journeys and various sojourns -of them in Rome- Paul had worked with Barnabas, Mark, Luke and Peter

The four Evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Lukas, and John, as far as two of them only are concerned, are Apostles at the same time as the other two are not:

Website Manager: G. Guichard, site Learning and Knowledge In the Carolingian Times / Erudition et savoir à l'époque carolingienne, Page Editor: G. Guichard. last edited: 12/28/2010. contact us at
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