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The Frankish Language

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When they journeyed out of Germania, Franks were speaking their national language, or the 'Frankish', which is called 'francique' or 'francisque' in current French. The Frankish language also is termed, theotisk or tudesque as Franks are a people which belongs to the large family of Germans, or Germanic peoples, which are often termed too like Teutons or Tudesques. Teutons or Tudesques, more specifically are the Germanic tribes which had settlend in modern days Germany during the times of the Germanic migrations, from Scandinavia, until in the 3rd century A.D. Those tribes were living from the Rhine to the Vistule rivers and the junction of the Morova with the Danube rivers and from North and Baltic seas in the North, down to about current Italy. A part of those Germans only had remained in Scandinavia, like Goths, Sueces and other people. The Germanic peoples, in Scandinavia all were speaking a unique language as it came to divide into two branches, when a part of the tribes migrated southwards! Gradually, that Germanic fund differentiated into three groups, the West, East, and North Germanic languages. Until in the 10th century A.D., despite other divisions at the time of the Great Invasions that gave the high, central and low German -- high, central and low referring to the course of the Rhine river -- the different peoples of Germanic origin could still understand each other, but by about that date -- the 10th century -- differences had accentuated themselves enough to make that inter-comprehensibility difficult. It was in that context that the language of the Franks appeared. The language of Clovis, or 'Old Frankish" or 'Old Franconian' belonged to the Low German language of the northern Germans, on the Lower Rhine. It was of the same family which gave nowadays current Dutch or Flemish. A few words of the Old Frankish have been perpetuated in the Lex salica. It seems that the old Frankish featured different dialects including that of the Ripuarian Franks. But Charlemagne's Frankish had turned the Rhine Franconian or Rhine Frankish, a language belonging to the central German group, which was not affiliated with Clovis Old Frankish. Charlemagne's Frankish was spoken in territories where low German, middle and upper German were already spoken. Until the beginning of the Capetians, Kings, lords, soldiers and Frankish freemen spoke the Rhine Franconian. And, still under Charlemagne, monk Otfride, disciple of Raban Maur, continued to term the French language via all of the words mentioned at the beginning of that tutorial. It is possible, during the Merovingian times, that the Salian Franks, that part who had passed into Gauls, as they had settled outside the old Frankland, begin more or less to already loose their original identity to Gallic peoples among which they were living. It is also possible however that the sustained interest of their they kept showing for the German territories they considered like a natural area of influence or for Austrasia, which they endowed soon with autonomous kings, allow them to strongly adhere to their Frankish, national roots. As far as the Carolingians are concerned, a well-established fact is that Charlemagne cherished all what was the national culture of his folk, the one of the Ripuarian Franks, the language and clothing included

Charlemagne also is renowned as it had written down the whole of the antique Germanic culture, the one which came from those first Germans who, through the ages, had sung the deeds of their heroes, chieftains and warriors! German heroic epics are mostly related to the period from the 2nd to the 6th centuries A.D., a period of change and destruction with eastern and western Germans settling into new territories and including the downfall of the Roman Empire. At the time of Tacitus already, that Roman writer who had traveled to the northern land and given a description of the people there, Germans were celebrating Arminius, their national heroe who had annihilated the legions of Rome in Teutoburg by the beginnings of the Christian era, and that they have almost divinized, or his son, named Mann, who they considered like he had founded the Germanic nation. Such ancient texts, such epic songs, were tending to get lost by the time of Charlemagne as they had been a oral litterature only and that the most ancient Germanic tongue was now getting forgotten. Charlemagne knew those ancient sagas by heart. The will of Charlemagne to give his national language accurate grammar rules participates of that same will. The written collection Charles compiled with those ancient songs of the Germans unluckily seems to have been lost. Some are thinking that it got burnt by order of Louis the Pious who considered that it was too close to paganism. That worry of recalling great actions of the past however was to be asserted at the Council of Frankfurt, the one which assessed the decisions of Nicea II as it included it with the aesthetic and pedagogical role of pictures in the West. That also featured, according to that logic that the Old Testament was predicting the New one, that ancien conquerors, like Cyrus, Ninus, Alexandre, or Hannibal were predicting the new, like Constantin, Theodosius, Charles Martel, Pippin, or Charlemagne. The value of history, which was known through the writers of Antiquity, through that role, was increased. Others think that part of the work ordered by Charles, or the whole, kept preserved and reached, for example, until the German Minnesängers, those trouveres as Wolfram von Eschenbach, one of those, is writing that he had used for his writings a 'old book,' which might be the collection of Charlemagne. He took in that his 'Emperor Otnit's Sea Journeys' or his 'Adventures of Weigand Dietrich and Those of His Faithful Meister Hiltebrand.' It is also possible that the fragment of a fight as told in Frankish language, and found on the cover of a 8th or 9th century A.D. Latin manuscript, have belonged too to Charles' compilation. Charlemagne was considering the Frankish language like his 'fathers's tongue' and he was writing his surname with a 'K', a letter which is proper to Frank. His royal monogram always was written with that 'K'

Frankish language always was the language of Emperor Louis the Pious, who also mastered Greek and Latin. The Oaths of Strasburg were pronounced in Frank and in Romance as, by the middle of the 10th century A.D. they were still obliged to translated into Frank a speech in Latin, by 948, at the effect that a king understand. The project of a Frankish grammar, as initiated by Charlemagne with the scholars Nannon, Theobald, Alcuin and Berenger, eventually was abandoned at the benefit of other tasks as it was not taken back after the death of Charles. A monk, Otfride, however, a disciple of Rabanus Maurus, pursued the work as his writings in prose or poetry are attesting that he knew well the grammar rules of the Frankish language. According to him, Charlemagne too would have deviced some 'other alphabets' he used to communicate with the 'prefects of the provinces of his vast empire.' Some fragments of that 'Frankish Grammar' by Otfride were anciently published as Otfride himself had conserved fragments of those alphabets. Rabanus Maurus, as far as he is concerned, himself wrote Frankish glossaries, according to the usage of those times when officials and clerics needed to translate into the tongue of the people they ruled, for a government, or Church use, texts or concepts written originally in Latin. Frankish poetry if fond of the alliteration, that technique the Franks invented which is the uniformity of the initial letters in words presenting the main ideas along one same verse and Franks too were the first to use the rime technique, that uniformity in sounds of syllabs ending two verses matching one another. Alliteration did not made it beyond the time of Charlemagne as it is few favourable to the natural move of versification as rime, at the contrary, extended to the whole of Europe

Carolingian Renaissance scholars were taking names of their own with Latin termination and they wrote in Latin, albeit their mother tongue be the Frankish language. They were calling it a 'barbaric' tongue, along with the Greek or Roman use. Provincial councils in 813 A.D. however are stressing the necessity to preach, in churches, with the really practised tongues at the time. Those in Mainz or Reims further told that priests must preach 'according to the propriety of the language' the people is using, so they can understand the meanings of the Divine parole. Such practised, and living tongues, thus, few before Charles' death and in a region like Tours, which is far away from the German lands, included, consist of the 'Romane rustic language' for the people and the 'Theodisc language' for the Franks. Such decisions are found back still during the council of Mainz, by 847 A.D. In a capitulary under Louis the Pioux, by 829, the institution of the dissolution of the ban, by the returning of the count and his men from the army, has his Frankisk name recalled, like 'the ban will have to be dissolved during 40 day, which in theodisc language is called 'scatlegi' or 'a rest in arms'.' Until late, at last, under the Capetians, until in about 1200 A.D., a strong vocabulary with too family and location names, maintained itself, vocabulary proper eventually participating into the synthesis which brough to current French, via the Renaissance endeavour. Frankish language began, as far as his territorial localization is concerned, to get distant from western Francia, or Francia occidentalis -which was to become current France- under King Hugues Capet and then his successors as Frank now was halting at the Vosges mountain range and the borders of Flander. The cause of that retreat mostly was the division of the Carolingian empire, with Frankish lords obliged, by the time of the sharings, to settle definitively in one or another of the new kingdoms. Until now, they had owned lands which were interspearsed along the whole empire! Romance languages, on a other hand, was more and more elevating itself in terms of cultural scale as it eventually got generalized in use through arts, as troubadours and trouveres had it popularized. At last, Frank was supplanted also in the German area by a new German language, called 'swabish' or 'German' as that language there too was generalized by the means of the Minnesägers and eventually became the language at the court of the Hohenstaufen rulers. That new German tongue itself retreated by the Renaissance, in front of a Frankish tongue-modified Saxon language, called 'Frank', or 'Saxon.' Frankish language proper looks like it survived until into our time, in the regions which constitute the border between French and German-speaking areas, like from Flander to Saarland as the current form which is the most closed to how Charlemagne was speaking his national tongue, likely is the language spoken in Luxemburg. Frankish language mostly is a German language, with declinations and genders as it presents further a great freedom to render a same pronunciation. At the difference of Anglo-Saxon peoples, Franks swiftly adopted the Latin alphabet to write their tongue. In some Carolingian era texts, they are harboring some Anglo-Saxon capital letters, like the C, M or Z, and minuscules too, like the g, a barred b (which matches either f or v), or a barred d, which matches th. The 'u', in Frank, is pronounced 'oo' like in 'book' as 'uu' is for 'w', like 'uuan', for example, which is pronounced 'wan' ('when'). A 'uu' when followed with a 'u' means a word featuring three us, like with 'antuuuord' (meaning answer) or with 'uunta', meaning wound

Two Texts in Frankish Language

1. Ode in honor of Louis, son of Louis the Stutterer, to celebrate his victory in 883 A.D. against the Normans. This national song of the Franks commemorates a brilliant victory won by Louis the Stutterer's son, near Sodalcurt, on the Normans, who left 8,000 dead -- including their king Guaramund -- and 9,000 horses. That invasion of the Normans in the Ponthieu area (France) and the neighbouring provinces had been facilitated by Esimbard, a noble disgraced by Louis, the new king. Louis impressed 'the peoples of the Gauls' because he valiantly defended his kingdom against the Viking incursions (original text in Frankish language to the left, English translation to the right; the numbering, on the English text side, can sometimes be approximate)

1 Einen Kuning weiz ich,
Heisset herr Luwdwig,
Der gerne Gott dienet,
Weil er ihms lohnet.
5 Kind war er uaterlos
Dess warth ihme sehr bos
Holoda inan Truhtin,
Magaczogo warth her sin.
Gah her ihme Dugidi,
10 Fronisch githigini
Stuel hier in Frankon.
So bruche er es lango.
Das gedeild er thanne
Sar mit Karlomanne
15 Bruder sinemo,
Thia czala wanni ano.
O das warth al geendist,
Koron wolda sin God iz,
Ob her arbeidi
20 So lang tholong mahti.
Liess der heidine mann
Obar si lidan,
Thiot Francono
Mannon sin diono;
25 Sume sar uerlorane
Wrdun sum erkorane,
Haranscara tholota
Ther er misselebeta.
Ther ther thanne thiob was,
30 Ind er thanana ginas,
Nam sine uaston
Sidd warth her guotman.
Sum war luginani,
Sum was skachari
35 Sum falloses,
Ind er giburtha sih thes.
Kuning was ehruirrit,
Das richi al girrit.
Was ehrbolgan Krist,
40 Leid her thes, ni gald iz,
Thoh erbarmed es God
Wiss er alla thia nod,
Hiess herr Hludwigan,
Tharot sar ritan.
45"Hludwig, Kuning min,
Hilph minan liutin,
Heigun sa Nordmann
Harto bidwungan."
Thanne sprach Hludwig,
50"Herro so duon ih
Dot ni rette mir iz,
Al thas thu gibiudist.
Tho nam her Godes urlub,
Huob her gundsanon us
55 Reit her thara in Frankon,
Ingagan Nortmannon,
Gode thancodul,
Thesin beidodun."
Quad: "Hin al fromin,
60 So lango beiden wir thin."
Thanno sprach luto,
Hludwig der Guoto:
"Trostet hiu, Gesellion,
Mine notstallon,
65 Hera santa mih God,
Doh mir selbo genod,
Ob hiu rat thuti,
Thaz ih hier gesurti.
Mi selbon ni sparoti,
70 Unz ih hiu ginerrti.
Nu wil ih, thas mir uolgon
Alle godes holdon.
Gisherit ist thiu hierwist,
So lango so will Krist.
75 Will her unsa bina warth,
Thero habet giwaht.
So wer so hier in ellian,
Giduat Godes willian,
Quimit he gisung us,
80 Ih gilonon imos;
Bilibit her thorinne,
Sinemo kumnie."
Tho nam her skild indi sper,
Ellianlicho reit her.
85 Vuold her warer rahchon
Sina widarsakchon.
Tho ni was iz buro lango
Fand her thia Northmannon.
GODE LOB: sageta.
90 Her siht thes her gereda.
Ther Kuning reit kuono,
Sang lioth frano,
Joh alle saman sungon,
Kyrie eleison.
95 Sang was gesungen,
Wig was bigunnen,
Bluot skein in wangon
Spilodundert Frankon.
Thar raht thegeno gelich
100 Nichein so so Hludwig
Snel indi kuoni.
Thas was imo gekunni.
Suman thuruch sluog her,
Suman thuruch staeh her,
105 Her skancta ce hanton
Sinan fianton
Bitteres lides,
So wehin hio thes libes.
Gilobet si thiu Godes kraft,
110 Hludwig warth sighaft.
Sag allin Heiligon thanc,
Sin warth ther Sigikamf.
Odar abur Hludwig
Kuning war salig,
115 Garo so ser turft was,
Swar so ses turft was,
Gihalde inan, Truhtin,
Bi sinan eregrehtin.
1 I know a mighty king; he is Lord Louis;
I'm going to sing his exploits and his glory.
He serves his God wholeheartedly and he has been
for this rewarded with wideness. 
5 In his childhood, Death had
abducted his father; it was, without doubt, a great misfortune,
but the Lord held him in his arms; He surrounded him with
heroes, valiant companions of arms; 
10 and He solidified
His throne in the midst of his Franks. Might he long
make our happiness! After the death of his father, Louis had shared his father inheritance with
15 Carloman, his brother, in equal portions
and without fraud. His God, who wanted to tempt him,
and see whether he was able to sustain a 
20 long ordeal,
allowed hordes of Pagans to spread into his
Empire; there were even among the Franks cowards 
25 who ranked under the banners of the Barbarians; some
abandonned their King highly; the others, whose
fidelity they sought to corrupt, were exposed to stigma
and derision, when they remained loyal to their prince. One of the traitors, 
who until then had been known only 
30 by his bad faith, took advantage of these troubles
to strengthen his power; he seized the strongholds
of his king; he had become one of the first of the nation; One saw weak and wicked men, who
were lacking to their word, and which dared even, in
unison with cowardly murderers, soaking their hands
in the blood of their brethren;
35 pitfalls were openly set
to one's neighbor, in order to enjoy his downfall,
and to raise oneself. Louis was struck with astonishment and pain, when
seeing the state in which his Kingdom had fallen. Christ
40 in his wrath had allowed these attacks, without
punishing those; but God, who saw these calamities, had pity
at last of his people; He ordered Lord Louis to
arm himself with his power and to go and deliver the kingdom:
45  "Louis, my King, go, he said, go and rescue my
people, that Normans hold bent under the
yoke of oppression and slavery." "I
obey, Lord, 
50 resumed Louis, I am ready to march
and the fear of death will not stop me in the fulfillment
of Your orders." Feeling in his heart a all divine Force, 
55 Louis
raises the Oriflamme to the sight of the Franks; he marches at
their head against the Normans, giving thanks to God,
from Whom he awaited relief and protection.  "Come,
Lord, he exclaimed, come, it is in 
60 you that we
put all our trust." Then Louis, this august prince, said to those who surrounded him,
raising the voice:  "Console yourself, my
brave companions-in-arms! Brave knights, 
65 this is
God Himself who sent me here; his arm will support me;
but I need your advice, to drive
the army wisely; you'll find me everywhere
where there will be danger, I will not spare myself,
70 and I will not stop until I have
delivered you. Follow me, then, all of you who have stayed
faithful to your God and to your Prince. What
is that life that God gives us in this world! We do
enjoy it as much as Christ allows; 
75 it is Himself
that protects our bones; he's holding them in his custody. Why
would we fear to expose them to danger?
So let us walk with a good heart, we fulfill the
will of God. I will reward those who 
80 will return
from combat, after having distinguished themselves, as I will take
under my protection the families of those who will have
remained on the field of fame, fighting for
their homeland." With these words, Louis takes his shield and lance; he
marches with joy, 
85 hoping to get revenge in the blood of
his enemies. A short distance from there, he find himself
in presence of the Normans.  "Praise be to God, 
90 does he exclaim;
we have what we want." He runs
against the enemy, beginning to sing a sacred hymn, that the whole army
repeats after him. 
95 These sacred songs having ended, the
fight begins. The impetuous ardor of the Franks
painted on their fiery cheeks. The soldiers drew a
glowing Vengeance, 
100 as none showed oneself like
Louis; he made this value and this great courage shine that
ennoble the blood of Frankish kings. Here he was bringing down
with his sword, there he pierced with his spear; 
105 certainly did he
pour a bitter drink to his enemies, which he made
falling under his blows. Blessed the strength of the Lord!
110 It is through her that Louis is the winner. Let us give thanks
To all the Saints who helped him in the fight and in the
115 Louis is a happy king; his gravity and
his prudence equals his value. Keep him, Lord,
for many years in the rights of the majesty
of his Throne!

2. Fight between Hildebrand and Halibrand. A epic poem that evokes a episode of Odoacer's time. That narrative was taken up by a Frank of the Carolingian time, and from the Fulda region, proving that ancient Germanic poetry was still known under the Carolingian. The poem was partially transcribed (or the end of the text was destroyed) by a cleric of the Fulda abbey on pages left blank in a manuscript. The King of Verona, Thidrikur, who could not resist Odoacer, fled to the Huns, to Attila. Hildebrand accompanied him, leaving behind his wife, Ule, and his son Halibrand as he engaged in 30 years of adventures by land and sea. Odoacer being dead, Thidrikur wanted to take his kingdom back, but that makes Hildebrand to bring his son Halibrand, who became king of Verona, to return under the banner of the rightful king. A fight ensued between the father and son (who did not recognise him, as his father recognized him by his arms). The father vainquished, forgave his son, and they returned the kingdom to the King (the text of Fulda was published by Brothers Grimm in 1812; text in Frankish language to the left, free translation in English to the right; the numbering, on the English text side, can sometimes be approximate)

1 Ih gihorta that seggen, that sih urhettun aelon nuotin
Hildibraht enti Hathubrant untar heriuntuem,
Suni fatar ungo; ire saro rihtun,
Garutun se iro gutahhamun, gurtun sih iro suert ana,
5 Helidos, ubar ringa; do sie to dero hiltu ritum.
Hiltibrahd gimahalta, heribrantes suni, her was heroro man,
Febahes protoro, her fragen gistuont
Fohem wortum: wer sin fater wari
Fireo in folche, eddo weliches cnuosles du sis?
10 Ibu du mi aenan sages, ik mideo dre-wet,
Chind in Chuninchriche, chud is min al irmindeot.
Hadubraht gimahalta Hiltibrantes suno: dat sagetun mi
Usera liuti alte anti frote, dea erhina warun,
Dat Hiltibrant haetti min fater, ih heittu Hadubrant.
15 Forn her Ostar gihueit, floh her Otachres nid
Hina miti Theotrich enti sinero degano filu;
Her furlaet in lante luttila sitten
Prut in bure; Barn unwahsan,
Arbeolosa heraet, Ostar hina det,
20 Sid Detriche darba gistuontum, fatereres mines,
Dat was so friuntlaos man, her was Otachre ummettirri,
Degano dechisto, unti Deotriche darba gistontum:
Her was eo folches at ente, imo was eo feheta ti leop,
Chud was her chonnem mannum, ni wanin ih, iu lib habbe
25 Wittu irmingot, quand Hiltibraht, obana ab hevane,
Dat tu neo danahalt mit sus sippan man dinc ni gileitos!
Want her do ar arme wuntane bouga,
Cheisuringu gitan, so imo seder chuning gap
Huneo truhtin: dat ih dir it nu bi huldi gibu!
30 Hadubraht gimalta, Hiltibranted suno:
Mit geru scal man geba infahan,
Ort widar orte, du bist dir, alter Hun ummet,
Spaher, spenis mi mit dinem wortum,
Wilihuh di nu speru werpan,
35 Pist al so gialtert man, so du ewin inwit fortos;
Dat sagetum mi sakolidante
Westar ubar Wentilsaeo, dat man wic furnam,
Tot is Hiltibraht Heribrantes suno.
Hildibrant gimahalt Heribrantes suno: wel gisihy ik,
40 In dienem Hrustim, dat du hares heine werron goten,
Dat du noh bi desemo riche reccheo ni wurti.
Welaga, nu waltant Got, quad Hiltibrant, we wurt skihit!
Ih walloto sumaro enti wintro sehstick urlante,
Dar man mih eo scerita in folc sceotantero
45 So man mir at burc einigeru banun ni gifasta;
Nu scal mih suasat chind suertu hauwan,
Breton mit sinu billiu, eddo ih imo ti banin werdan.
Doh maht du nu aodlicho, ibu dir din ellent aoc,
In sus heremo man hrusti giwinnan;
50 Rauba bi hrahanen ibu du dar enic reht habes.
Der si doh nu argosto, quand Hildibrant, Ostarliuto,
Der dir nu wiges warne, nu dih es so wel lustit
Gudea cimeinun niused emotti,
Wer dar sih hiute dero hrel-zilo hrumen muotti,
55 Erdo dessero brunnono bedero waltan.
Do laettun se aerist asckim scritan
Scarpen scurim, dat in dem sciltim stont;
Do stoptun tosamene, staimbort chludun,
Hewun harmlicco huitte scilti
60 Unti im iro lintum luttilo wurtun
61 Giwigan, ni ti wambnum...
(here the text ends)
1 I have heard, according to the traditions of our fathers,
that Hiltibraht and Hatubrand, the father and his only son,
met one day, without knowing each other and provoked each other in fight.
5 Then one saw those terrible warriors to put their armour in order; they cover themselves with their surcoats, they tied their swords to a round loop; as they advanced against each other
on their steeds, Hiltibraht son of Héribrand, this warrior 
of such a noble heart, so cautious, said to Hathubraht:  "Who is your father? 
What race does he belong to, among the noble families of this country? 
10 If thou tell me, I will reward thee with magnificence; a famed hero
in the Kingdom of the Huns, I will give you a triple wire armor. I have travelled
all over the Earth, and I know all the noble breeds among men."
Hathubrant, son of Hiltibrant, replied: "I have learned from the elders who 
have already descended into the tomb, that my father was named Hiltibraht; my name is Hathubraht; 
15 he once went into the lands of the East with Théotrich 
and several other knights as they were fleeing the hatred of Otokar; he abandoned his young wife, his son still a child, and his weapons without a master to carry them. 
He traveled the whole East. 
20 The misfortunes of Dietrich my cousin, this prince abandonned by all, 
having only increased every day, my father was always at the head 
of the braves; his happiness was to fight; however, what formidable 
his arms might be, he did not want to attack Otokar; I don't 
think he's still alive."
25  "Almighty God who dwells in heaven! Hiltibraht exclaimed, will You allow
that these two warriors, united so closely by the bonds of blood, come
to hands against each other and seek to take their own life!"
saying these words, he detaches from his arm bracelets of great price, that he
had received in the presence of the king of the Huns:  "Hold, he said, receive them;
wear them to remind you of the memory of a warrior who has you in esteem.
30 Hathubraht replied:  "It is spear in hand, point to point, that
one gets such gifts, old Hun! You don't deserve to take your place
among warriors; you're just a coward spy, trying to deceive me through
the appearance of your speeches; here, my spear will reach you in the moment;
35 aren't you ashamed, in such an advanced age, of using such black artifice?
know that men who were sailing West on the Sea of Wends,
brought me the news of a bloody fight, in which my Father Hiltibraht,
son of Héribrant, had remained among the dead, and I am quite right to believe
that he no longer is alive." Hiltibraht, son of Héribrant, replied:  "I already too well see,
40 seeing your armor, that thou do not belong to a master of noble extraction
and that, in these lands, you have not yet distinguish your name by any feat. O Gods
who govern the Universe! What a shame! What a fatal destiny awaits me! There has been sixty
summers, there has been sixty winters that I roamed in those remote regions of my homeland,
always in the fights; everywhere I was seen at the head of the first warriors; 
45 never
no man of war had the honour to drag me in his fort, and to throw me there
in irons; and today my own son, my beloved son, must raise his sword
against me! He must lay me on the ground with his axe, or I must become his murderer!
Young man, if you fight with value, it can easily happen, that you take away
the armour of a man of honor and that you drag
50 his body after you inhumanly into
dust; do it then if you have the right. However I would be the loosest
of all the men in the East, should I seek to divert you from a fight you
desire with so much impatience. Brave companions of arms, who listen to us, you
will judge in your courage, which of both of us can boast today of having known
the better to direct his traits, 
55 and the one to carry in triumph the armor of his
adversary!" Upon that, their sharp javelins depart from their hands with so many
force, that they remain suspended to their shields; they dash themselves one against
the other; their axes resound due to the terrible blows which they strike their shields with;
60 their armour looks like shaken, but they remain both firm and unshakable
on their feet....
(here the text ends)

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