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Schools of Carolingian Times

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working at the Palatine Schoolworking at the Palatine School

The work of collecting, copying, and spreading of the profane and sacred works which became to be maintained by the Palace School, greatly contributed to bring into relations the monastery and/or cathedral schools in the Carolingian Empire. That move however, seems to have been mostly centralized, with the exchanges taking place from the local schools to the Court, thence back. In some cases however, the closeness to the scholars of the Court of some abbotts -like in Lorsch, for example- surely rendered those exchanges more egalitarian. More "horizontal" relationships seem to have existed in any way at the time. Clerics, indeed, did not hesitate to journey to to other abbeys in scholarly purposes, as, more or less far away from their own house, they went to read the manuscripts, which they used for the works they were writing. Another way of relations were that such authors might too having the books lent to them. More localized links could settle between religious houses and their schools when, for example, a bishop was entrusted the task to give vitality back to some abbeys and monasteries in their bishopric -like the case for Stephen in Liège about 900 A.D. A important part of the -close or faraway- relations between abbeys, on the other hand, is also due to the links maintained between teachers and pupils, or between pupils with each other. Other causes might also have been at play. The fact, at last, that Charlemagne continued first Carolingians policy to hire Austrasians at the head of the varied territories in the Frankish kingdom or Empire, made that one often saw long duration links to settle between those, like, for example, between Gaul and 'Germany.' By the 9th century A.D., some bishops who had been monks and studied in monastic schools, did pass the taste for the study from the cloister to the cathedral. Eventually, in the 10th century, the reputation of the schools of Francia occidentalis then the Kingdom of France attracted students from foreign countries. Englishmen sent their children to Lyon according to a custom which was already ancient by the 11th century as foreigners also wanted to have the most skilful masters from Francia, like English drew Abbo of Fleury, or princes of Germania Rathier and Gerbert. (in each category, by alphabetical order of the place, city or bishopric; the fact that a school be mentioned not or no more for a given century may result from the used source only and also from the fact that some source, written from a national point of view, do not take in account places considered foreign. Note: that page must not be considered completed as notices may be added with new data or new notices be crafted)


Schools Which Existed Only in The 8th Century A.D.

-no details-
Medeloc (bishopric of Trier)
the school served as a seminary in the 8th century A.D. and several archbishops of this important seat were trained there (Richbode, Wason or Wison, Hette, Amalar as the latter perfected the training he had first followed in St-Martin-de-Tours)
Vieux-Moutier (St-Michel-en-Lorraine)
like St-Gall, it hardly distinguished itself at the beginning of the Renaissance but soon became a preeminent school. Smaragde teached there
close Rouen (no other details)
St Gregory, disciple of St Boniface, taught students of all nations (France, England, Friesland, Saxony, Suevi, Bavaria). These disciples spreaded faith in Saxony, Friesland and Westphalia. Among the pupils of St Gregory was St Marchelme (or St Marcellin), a priest

Schools Which Existed in The 8th and 9th Centuries A.D.

few named in the 8th century A.D., it was however also very famous before the end of the 8th century. The monastic school served both clerics and monks. The monastery was founded by St Benedict of Aniane and there he had amassed a large library and established various skillful masters (which he maybe hed formed himself). Benedict had been educated at the Palatine School and he had a great knowledge of the letters. The masters of Aniane taught singing, reading, grammar, theology (which explained the Holy Scripture). Many of their disciples became bishops and many more, in turn, restored studies in the monasteries of France, Italy and Germany, the latter place where, at the beginning of the 9th century A.D., the reformation of Aniane was extended. In the 9th century, Aniane seems to have perpetuated itself more than Tours, at least as long as St Ardon Smaragde (various works), a disciple of St. Benedict of Aniane, taught there. It was no longer mentioned in the 10th century
its school, as it was important, had fallen into decay at the time of the Mayors of the Palace. It found its luster back under Gervolde (Bishop of Evreux turned a monk then abbot of the abbey) before the end of the 8th century. A excellent connoisseur of the chant, he taught it. Among his pupils, Hardouin exceled in arithmetic and the art of writing well and who trained to those same arts several pupils and left a large number of works. Those came to increase the library already considerable due to his gifts of copying, and to which Wandont and Gervolde, abbots, added. Eginhard and Ansegise (the latter a student of the school, strongly versed in Sacred and profane sciences) succeeded them and kept increasing the library. By the 9th century A.D., Hardouin, who was illustrating the school at the end of the 8th century by its science in arithmetic and its ability to write well, continued until 811. Benedict became master of the school some time later and he taught there the 'highest sciences' (he was then abbot of St-Peter, nowadays St-Maur-des-Fossés, near Paris). Fontenelle also gave some other writers. Fontenelle was no longer mentioned in the 10th century
there was a school since the time of St Boniface, by the 8th century A.D. Raban became the master of the school and he had Samuel, his classmate in Tours, as a colleague. The school became famous since the beginning of the 9th century as students came from Germania or Gauls. Out of there came doctors for all Christendom. Fulda, moreover, begat many other schools, like that of Mainz. Raban Maur and Samuel, disciples of Alcuin in Tours, had made the taste for the sciences pass in Fulda, as the abbey became one of the most famous monasteries in the West. Under Raban, there were 270 monks at the abbey and 12 of them, the most learned, were preposed to teach others Church and profane sciences (if the latter were related to the former). Of these school teachers (or "moderators"), if one was missing (death or departure for another monastery) he was immediately replaced by another of the most skillful monks. Piety, in Fulda, went together with science, which carried several churches, even remote, to come to choose Bishops there, like Freculfe, bishop of Lisieux or Thibauld, Bishop of Cluse and many others. The library, under Raban, was rich for the time. Raban, who became abbot of Fulda, nevertheless wanted to continue his explanations of the Scriptures. He had a very large number of illustrious disciples: Walafried Strabo, Loup of Ferrières, Rudofle, Otfride. In the 9th century A.D., when Raban Maur ceased to be the master of the school, it was monk Candide monk who was, then Rudolfe, pupil self of Raban (he wrote his life; 'all of Germany watched this new moderator as an excellent master in history, poetics and all other liberal arts.') Then came Bernward, a scholar in all kinds of knowledge, who ran the school for 14 years. Thus under so many remarkable écolâtres, Fulda did not cease, throughout the 9th century, to produce great scholars: Ermenric, Abbot of Elwangen (wrote in verse and prose), Werembert (one of the scholars of the time, retired to St. Gall where he taught), Helperic (then in St. Gall also). Gerhoh, a priest, was some time in charge of inspecting the library in the 9th century. Fulda was no longer mentioned in the 10th century A.D.
Hersfeld (or Hirsfel) (in Hesse)
little mentioned in the 8th century A.D., Haimon, by the 9th century, was abbot before being Bishop of Halberstat and undoubtedly communicated to the studies the taste he had brought from Fulda. Hersfeld was no longer mentioned in the 10th century
Hirsauge (bishopric of Speyer)
it was the other place, with Reichenau and St-Germain-d'Auxerre, where sciences passed after Fulda. Little mentioned in the 8th century A.D., it is only given like founded in 838. They took 15 monks from Fulda to populate it, and many were scholars: Liutbert (1st abbot, of regular mores, he gave the first lessons, wrote a commentary on the Song of Songs); Gerungue (succeeded him, a scholar), Hildulfe and Ruthard who took over successively the direction of the school wrote various works. As the schoolmaster's charge was not compatible with the dignity of abbot, Liutbert transmitted the charge to Hildulfe, who remained master of the school until his death in 859 A.D. (since 852, he wrote, for the pupils, a treatise about the ecclesiastical calculation). Ruthard, very praised, educated in all sorts of knowledges; had a quantity of disciples and his reputation attracted a large number of young lay people. It was also under him that monk Helfride was trained (several very useful works). Richbodon, by his death in 865 A.D., succeeded him during 24 years. Then came Harderard in 889, for 2 years then he was abbot and Luthelme became master of the school, a scholar with a lot of knowledge. Even at the end of the 9th century A.D., as studies fell elsewhere, several men of letters were still seen in Hirsauge: Rudolfe (Commentary on Tobie in 888), Herderic (hymns in honor of the Saints, collection of epigrams and other poems, treatise on Music), Sigismund, Cunzigon both strongly scholars (the first became bishop of Halberstat, the second abbot of St-Nazaire near Worms). Hirsauge was no longer mentioned in the 10th century A.D.
few mentioned in the 8th century A.D. and however named like a 'school so brilliant once.' In the 9th century, Mellin, who had been teaching since the end of the 8th century, continued at the beginning of the 9th. Angelome, one of his students, after he had perfected his studies at the Palatine School, made some figure at the time among scholars. Luxeuil was no longer mentioned in the 10th century
New Corbie or Corvey (Saxony)
little mentioned in the 8th century A.D., it was established in Saxony by monks who came from Corbie shortly after the death of Charlemagne in 822. The school opened the following year. The abbey school was flourishing from the beginning. St Anskar was its first director. The letters were studied there with such success that they spreaded very quickly throughout Saxony. The Saxon abbey, in the 9th century A.D., continued above all the missionary work North of Corbie (as well as among the Saxons, its original function), which is normal since it is the daughter. It was a seminar for the missions and many doctors and bishops came out of it. Gerolde, Deacon and chaplain of Louis the Pious retired in the abbey to dedicate himself to God and he was of a great help for the advancement of studies. He was poured into all the sciences and he brought his considerable library. Under Warin, the first abbot, who ruled until 856 when he died, there were 180 monks, of which 7 preposed to teaching. All later became illustrious in Church: Nithard suffered martyrdom in Sweden and the other 6 became bishops. Adalgaire and Hoger of Bremen and Hamburg, Haltfrede of Hildesheim, Tiagrin of Halberstat. Witmar and Gislemar, also masters of the school, who had come from the ancient Corbie, became also bishops, the first of Sweden, the other of Denmark. Helocon, another master of the school, was chosen with Ailbolde to evangelize Nordmen. The New Corbie retained its radiance for a long time. Still at the end of the 9th century A.D., under Bovon, who died in 890, studies were as flourishing as anywhere else in Germany and, like before, great men of Church or letters came out: in 883 A.D., Wigbert became Bishop of Hildesheim, in 889 Evilpe became the one of Halberstat as Wimon was then also known for his doctrine. Solace went out of the New Corbie to evangelize the 'Nordmen or Danes;' Addaston, a very learned monk, author in 901 A.D. of a commentary about prophet Daniel, was issued from the school of New Corbie; Two students wrote, one the life of St Rembert about 888, the other the relation of relics sent by the abbey to St-Denis in France. Another one, Agius, wrote. New Corbie was no longer mentioned in the 10th century
Prom (bishopric of Trier)
little mentioned in the 8th century A.D., the schools, in the 9th century, were no less brilliant than in Reichenau under Abbot Marcuard (after 850). Grerungue, who had been chamberlain of the Emperor, Nithard 'famous in Loup of Ferrières' (who is not the historian of the same name), Ansbald, Egile, Wandalbert (martyrology in verse) were making the reputation of the school. Marcuard's reputation and his taste for 'good studies,' attracted several characters of a distinguished merit in fine letters and ecclesiastical science: Adon (later Archbishop of Vienna), Reginon (then Abbot of Prom, where he was one of the greatest lights of the end of the 9th century A.D. and beginning of the 10th). Prom was no longer mentioned in the 10th century
it was the place where sciences passed after Fulda. A school existed several years before the end of the 8th century A.D. Hetton, for example, abbot of the monastery, Bishop of Basel and ambassador of Charlemagne to Constantinople, had been a schoolboy there since the age of 5 under a Irishman (perhaps Clement). To this Clement succeeded as masters of the school: Herlebalde, Tacens, Talton, Wetin, Walafride Strabo. The latter gave a new luster to Reichenau and he trained several important disciples. In the 9th century, a large number of writers emerged from Reichenau, a sign that the letters were widely cultivated. Walafried Strabo, first master of the school, became the abbot. When he was master of the school, studies became flourishing and the library was provided with all the necessary books (the library had been formed, as soon as he had worked to renew the studies, by Waldon, abbot during 20 years of the monastery, then that of St-Denis in 806 and who had preferred to remain abbot than to become bishop of Basel or Pavia; it was greatly increased by Regimbert, monk and librarian, who was a very good copyist under Waldon and his 3 successors (he also gave several excerpts from the Fathers' writings and, at the top of the books he was copying, he usually put a epigram in 12 large werse) as the books that were copied in Reichenau in the 9th century would otherwise have sufficed to form a 'reasonable' library). They had a special taste for poetry and to letters, they added fine arts. And above all they had excellent painters, some of whom were called to St. Gall to decorate the abbatial house built for Abbot Grimald. Then came, in the 9th century A.D., as masters of the school: Buntwide (some works), Ermenric (works), Meginard (issued from a illustrious family and honored as a martyr, he had shone by his spirit and his application to study under Erlebalde). Kerard, who was not écolâtre of the school, he composed a collection of synonyms for the students. Small monasteries that depended on Reichenau (like Pollingen, near the lake of Zürich, where a monk was preposed to teaching). Were pupils of Reichenau Wichingue, one of the apostles of Moravia and then Bishop of Neytracht in Upper Hungary at the end of the 9th century A.D.; Gothescalc; Cadolte, Bishop of Novara, brother of Lintward, Bishop of Vercelli and Archchancelor of the Empire. Reichenau was no longer mentioned in the tenth century
St-Bertin (or Sithiu)
little mentioned in the 8th century A.D., Hucbalde (of Elnone) was called there in the 9th century by Abbot Rodulfe to lead the school. Since King Alfred of England had taken from there Grimbalde and some others to reestablish letters in his kingdom, the monastery was deprived of learned monks who could teach others. Before, however, the letters had not ceased. Gontbert, the son of a great lord and monk had been a long time, for example, the ornament of it by his knowledge and his beautiful writing (a treatise about ecclesiastical calculus; through his work as a copyist, he renewed the books of the library; he copied three antiphonaries for three churches, one in gold letters). St-Bertin was no longer mentioned in the 10th century
St-Riquier-en-Ponthieu or Centule
few mentioned in the 8th century, it was since long the monastery where children of the Kings, dukes and earls were raised (Jeremiah, who became Archbishop of Sens, and Nithard, the historian, were part of that, for example). Angilbert, the abbot from 798 A.D., renewed the monastery and the letters bloomed particularly. Angilbert, with 200 volumes, created the fund of the 'curious and rich' library (the catalogue was preserved by the monk Hariulfe). After being great in the 8th century A.D., the school received a new luster in the 9th due to the care the Deacon Michon, a monk, too of the abbey (various verse and prose works). It was no longer mentioned in the 10th century
Wissemburg (Alsace)
little mentioned in the 8th century A.D., Otgaire, in the 9th century, was abbot and then Archbishop of Mainz. He had a lot of zeal for the Sacred literature and he likely communicated thee the taste for studies. In any case, it is certain that, at the end of the 9th century A.D., the school of the monastery was flourishing under scholar monk Otfride who shone through his doctrine and his writings. The school at the time gave a bishop to Spire, Amalric. It was no longer mentioned in the 10th century

Schools Which Existed From the 8th to The 10th Century A.D.

Corbie (bishopric of Amiens)
in the 8th century A.D., Adalhard, abbot, was concerned to bring together the books of the Elders, that he sometimes made come from Italy. From Corbie great scholars came out at the beginning of the 9th century: Paschase Radbert, Adalhard the Young, Hildemanne (Bishop of Beauvais), Odon (idem), Warin (abbot of New Corbie), St Anskar (the Apostle of northern Peoples, Archbishop of Hamburg), Witmar, as well as many others thereafter. Corbie was one of the most thriving schools of the 9th century throughout the Empire. A large number of great men were issued from it: Paschase Radbert, Anscaire, Ratramne, Chrestien Druthmar. Led by Pascase and Anscaire, it passed by 826 A.D. under the direction of Macaire. He was a Irishman (or a "Hibernois") but he did not always defend Irishmen's "solid way of teaching" and he sowed in teaching some philosophical subtleties (which are quite ordinary to the Irishmen on a other hand) which were to lead a anonymous monk of Corbie to embrace "strongly singular feelings." But, above all, Corbie then was forming skilled missionaries who were to bring the Gospel and culture to Denmark, Sweden and elsewhere (Anskar and Aubert who, rejected from Denmark, stopped in Friesland; then Anskar went back to Sweden with Vitmar, also issued from Corbie; Anskar was prosecuted by Gislemar also from Corbie; Ebbo, Archbishop of Reims also played a role, who had evangelized in Denmark). The abbey, source of so many writers and scholars in the 9th century A.D., still supported itself by the 10th century. Even if new books were not published, they were copying ones from the Antiquity. Ratold, abbot in 945 A.D, had the manuscript of the Sacramentary of Pope St Gregory made. Walbert, Bishop of Noyon in 920, Ingelrand (or Enguerrand), Bishop of Cambrai in 957, scholars both in sacred and profane science, had been raised there. Ingelard, still a student, was taken from Corbie in 981 to become abbot of St-Riquier. St Ethelvold, abbot in England, made came from Corbie monks who were skillful in letters and chant to teach his monks in the two domains
by the 8th century A.D., as soon as before the death of Alcuin, Sigulfe, one of his pupils, became master of the school. A pupil of York, he had gone to Rome and Metz to perfect himself in ecclesiastical studies. In the 9th century, not far from Fleury, the abbey was much more flourishing. St-Martin-de-Tours thus was the mother of Ferrières. Loup, abbot of the monastery, issued of Fulda, began by being master of the school (from all the 9th century, he was the scholar who best mastered letters; he was very versed in theology; to the lessons on the letters, he always joined instructions of Christian piety). Loup carried the studies at such a level that he and the monks he directed 'signaled themselves out of all the people of letters of their time.' Loup, a "learned abbot", also had books looked for he lacked in the library because he wanted to enrich him with all the good books of ecclesiastical and profane Antiquity; he even sent several times people to Rome to look for, whence he made brought back from there, the History of Salluste, most of Cicero's works, Quintilian, and the commentary of Donat on Terence. In the 10th century there were still in Ferrières some slight vestiges of the lessons that Loup had given. Ecfride, monk, left a manuscript poem on Gregory the Great (he knew Walon or Galon, Bishop of Troyes)
Gorze (bishopric of Metz)
the school existed but without relief during the 8th and 9th centuries A.D. By the 10th century, Blidulfe, who spent a few years as Archdeacon of the Church of Metz, withdrew to Gorze. The abbey was reformed in 933 A.D. and he brought into the way (the "doctrine") of the school of Reims under Remi of Auxerre (Blidulfe had a lot of spirit delicacy and passed for the most learned man then in Metz). Other scholars arrived shortly thereafter, forming a society as scholarly as pious: Einolde, the first archdeacon of the Church of Toul (reputation of being poured into the divine and profane letters; he was the first abbot after the reformation of the abbey), Anstée (another archdeacon of Metz; naturally very eloquent and he had applied himself particularly to the Holy Scriptures but without neglecting the liberal arts), Jean de Vendière (became very illustrious thereafter, abbot after Einolde; he had trained at St-Mihiel in Lorraine under grammarian Hildebolde (who was poorly named Heribalde for the 9th century), another disciple of Remi of Auxerre; then he studied a little rhetoric and compute at the school of Toul and, elsewhere, Holy Scripture, cannons and civil laws; once withdrawn to Gorze, he applied himself seriously to the study of the Fathers, the liturgy, the "science of time", ecclesiastical history, the "Categories", the introduction of Porphire and the whole dialectic; at the same time, he was the abbey's steward). Those were the "first Solitaires" to populate the "desert of Gorze" as their example soon attracted many others including bishops. A school was formed for the study of "high sciences", but children were also educated there. The year 955 A.D. allowed to check the esteem that one had of the knowledge of the solitaires of the place, and the strength of their erudition: Abderrhamane, "Prince" of the Arabs of Spain, sent letters offensive to religion to Emperor Otto, even he was seeking the friendship of him; they decided to send him scholars to add orally to the writings in return and, thus, to convert him. Finally, they turned to the scholars of Gorze following the opinion of Adalberon Bishop of Metz and the abbot allowed Jean de Vendière (who illustrated himself in that embassy) and Deacon Garamanne (secretary of the embassy; he was very apt to that function because he wrote skillfully and quickly). Gorze's reputation then continued and it came to Pope Agapit who drew monks from the abbey to reform the monastery of St Paul (it was the already aged monk Andre, who left). It is, finally, difficult to enumerate all the great men who came out of Gorze: Adalberon, Archbishop of Reims, Rothard, Bishop of Cambrai, Odilon (from a illustrious family, restaurer and abbot of Stavelot), Humbert, restaurer of St-Evre in Toul, Guibert I, founder of the Abbey of Gembloux, St Macalene Abbot of Wassor and then of St-Michel-en-Thiérarche, Frederic, paternal uncle of Adalberon Bishop of Metz and then abbot of St-Hubert, Rambert at last, abbot of Senone
by the 8th century A.D., letters are cultivated with as much success and ardour as elsewhere, under Mellin (or Mellic), master of the school. Luxeuil faded during the following century then Constance, master of the school who died in the early 11th century, makes it clear that the school was very famous at the end of the 10th. Students came from Besançon, Lyons, Châlons, Mâcon, Langres, Strasburg to take lessons from Constance. The establishment of the school goes back much higher or, better, it was not interrupted since Mellin and Angelome taught there with reputation in the 9th century A.D. Thus Adson was taken from the abbey before 950 to renew studies in Toul and he had drawn there the beginnings of his erudition that one finds in his writings
by the 8th century A.D., under Archbishop Leidrade, the archbishopric had a famous school as soon as by the end of the 8th century: chant, spiritual sense of the Gospels and other sacred texts (including the Book of Job, "one of the most difficult in the Bible"). The Episcopal school was the most illustrious of the 9th century A.D. after the Palatine School. The archbishopric was successively occupied by four scholarly clerics: Leidrade, Agobard, Amolon and Remi. The famous scholar of the school was deacon Florus, known for his various writings. In the 10th century A.D., they also went, from Lyons, to study until Luxeuil as that is even more surprising because the school of Lyons was very famous throughout the 10th century especially for philosophy (where it was studied "seriously"). It was Antoine (then abbot of L'Isle-Barbe, who taught philosophy with reputation during the first years of the 10th century.) St Maïeul, abbot of Cluny, was one of his pupils and he also learned a great deal in morals and doctrine. Already in the precedent centuries, the school of Lyon was termed the "Academy of the country beyond the Sea" (by the Irishmen?, the Anglo-Saxons?) and no one deserved the title of master (elsewhere?) if it had not been carefully instructed there. Still at the beginning of the 11th century A.D., St Odilon named Lyons "mother and nurse of philosophy". Lyon was also famous for the teaching of the liberal arts. In the 10th century, the reputation of the schools of Francia occidentalis -- then the Kingdom of France -- attracted pupils from foreign countries. Englishmen sent their children to Lyons according to a already ancient custom in the 11th century
St Alban of Mainz
(Mainz, Germany)
little mentioned in the 8th century A.D., the school had been created by St Boniface and it was then led by "the learned" Lull. Like some others, it took a new luster again under Raban Maur and it turned hardly less famous than the school of Fulda. The studies were flourishing there. Raban Maur, who had become Archbishop of Mainz, wrote there and the letters were a little bit neglected after his death. That was the school of the monastery of St-Alban, located in the city, which took over the torch and the Diocese of Mainz became perhaps the place where the literature was cultivated with more success and, generally, the monasteries are where, in the bishopric of Mainz, the studies are the most cultivated. In St-Alban were Probus (friend and condisciple of Walafried Strabo, always busy writing or reading Cicero, Virgil and other authors of the "good Antiquity") and Altwin, both monks, the second teacher, as they acquired all kinds of knowledge and wrote. Probus was perhaps a poet and Altwin, who was the master of the school, sometimes used Loup to consult him on the grammatical difficulties. The decline of the scholl took time. Still at the end of the 9th century A.D., the school was under the direction of monk Rupert, scholar in Greek and Latin, skillful in verse and prose and who left works. And even at the beginning of the 10th century, the school was still vigorous under the direction of Adelberon, monk of Hirsauge. However, in general, the reputation of Mainz did not approach, in many ways, that of Fulda

Schools Which Existed Only in The 9th Century A.D.

bishop Jesse, in Amiens, created a episcopal school
bishop Odon, in Beauvais created a episcopal school
Condat (or St-Claude) (Jura, France)
Mannon, a illustrious philosopher, having left the Palace School -where he had taught- by the death of Louis the Stutterer, withdrew to this monastery where he became the provost (name that began to be given to who was at the head of a monastery without being the regular abbot). There he brought several rare manuscripts that enriched the library and he continued to cultivate the letters without, however, teaching them. He composed works (commentaries on Plato's Treaties of the Laws and the Republic; On Aristotle's Books of the Sky and the World and the Universal Morality)
one thinks, that at least in the 9th century there was a episcopal school, perhaps the origin of copyists there
Adalard, abbot, was copying books of the good Antiquity
Landevenec (in Armoric)
'almost at one of the extremities of the world;' they also were working to support shaky studies, but these efforts were not a great help. There appeared three writers both in verse and prose: Gurdistin (abbot in the middle of the 9th century; a new Life of St Guingalois), Clement, a monk (3 hymns to the same saint, but without beauty), Wrmonoc, priest, monk under Gurdistin (he wrote in 884 the life of St Paul, Bishop of Leon)
Le Mans
as St Aldric had become the bishop there for 24 years, it is assumed that he revived the taste for the study id the latter had fallen before. Under his bishopric, various clerics wrote the deeds of his predecessors
Metloc (bishopric of Trier)
since the end of the 8th century A.D., existed the seminary from which this great diocese usually drew its archbishops. He remained such in the 9th century and he maintained good studies
Paderborn (Bavaria)
still at the time under the authority of the 'French princes.' The school is created under the episcopate of Badurade (815-863) and instructs the nobility and other states. Students there were the author of the translation in Paderborn of the Relics of St Liboire, Bishop of Le Mans
church of Poutières (bishopric of Langres)
The epitaph of Thierry, son of Gérard, Count of Roussillon, died at the age of 1, in the best verses of the century, shows that the beautiful letters were successfully cultivated here
Redon (Diocese of Vannes)
by the middle of the 9th century A.D., St Convoïon is abbot, and there is a school where 'a few men of letters' were trained
Réomé (or Montier-St-Jean)
(bishopric of Langres)
letters were still being studied around 850 A.D. there and music was even more carefully cultivated than in many other places. The son of Charles the Bald received his first education at Réomé
was dependent of Ferrières, and Loup had scribes whose chief was Lantramne, a skillful master. He ran the local school and had many disciples. Remi, a relative of him (not Remi of Auxerre), Héric, monk of St-Germain-d'Auxerre, Fridilon (of which Loup spoke in his writings). Adon, then Archbishop of Vienna was also a pupil there for some time
St-Matthias (formerly St-Euchaire) (bishopric of Trier)
also did a great deal of honor to literature. Monk Florbert, one of the most learned characters of his century (several writings), was the master of the school. He had a large number of disciples, all of them famous for their knowledge. Eberhard (as Florbert died in 885), priest and monk (some works) became master of the school for 24 years
St-Médard de Soissons
came from St. Gallen Marc, the Irish bishop, and he inspired the love of study
St-Vaast of Arras
Radulfe, another famous 9th-century copyist, was enriching the library of St-Vaast. Alcuin, at the beginning of the Carolingian Renaissance, had urged the monks of St-Vaast to join science to piety, which they did. After some time there was a school whose master was Haimin, the guardian of the church and who was supposed to have been the pupil of Alcuin. He trained Milon of Elnone, Hubert, priest, and Wlfaïus (some books). After 850 A.D., Ulmar, trained in that school, wrote a relationship of the Miracles of St-Vaast and the invention of his body
bishop Adon, in Vienna created a episcopal school
Vieux-Moutiers (St-Michel-de-Lorraine)
the school of St-Michel, so brilliant at the end of the 8th century A.D. and at the beginning of the 9th under Abbot Smaragde, maintained itself under the direction of a disciple of Remi of Auxerre. Smaragde's commentary on Donat, a kind of grammar, was very much used for students' studies

Schools Which Existed in 9th and 10th Centuries A.D.

by the 9th century A.D., Bishop Halidgaire created a episcopal school. In the 10th century, churches of Arras and Cambrai were reunited before their separation at the end of the 11th century. There were, at the end of the 10th century or at the beginning of the 11th, schools of grammar and chant where expressly clerics (for the ministry) and laity (for the government of the people) were educated. They had to be trained in the liberal arts, the science of religion and morality. About 960, under abbot Fulbert, these schools existed mainly in Arras and were even flourishing at the end of the life of St Vindicien. At Cambrai, 40 years before, Peter, Archdeacon, was a scholar and a man of good taste as Hucbald, from St-Amand, sometimes took him for censor of his works
as far as abbeys are concerned: Argenteuil (in the 9th century A.D., it is known by a epitaph that there was a Addalalde, Deacon and Master of music under Charlemagne or Louis the Pious (there was a school where singing was taught, probably the Gregorian brought from Rome in the 8th century). Argentueil, originally a abbey of women, was a double monastery. In addition to singing, the other sciences 'suitable for monks' were taught; St-Peter (now St-Maur-des-Fossés, and since a collegiate church of canons; in the 9th century several scholars trained too there under two learned abbots, Benoît (he had taught the "highest sciences" in Fontenelle) and then Eudes or Odon (some writings); Ste-Geneviève of Paris (the studies were renewed there in the 10th century). In the 9th century A.D., Bishop Aeneas created a episcopal school, that had begun with Remi of Auxerre at the end of the century. In the 10th century, as the kings of Francia occidentalis had made the city the one where they staid, that helped a lot to attract good masters in and, in any case, teaching did not stop there since that time. Shortly after 850 A.D., Abbo, who had begun his studies in his monastery of Fleury, came here to study dialectics, astronomy, geometry and rhetoric likely under the pupils of Remi's disciples. Before the end of the 10th century, Hubald or Hubold, a young canon of Liege, taught with great reputation. He made many friends, attached himself to the canons of Ste-Geneviève, and in a short time he formed there a large number of pupils ('disciples). However, as he had left Liege without the knowledge of Bishop Notger, the latter first recalled him, and then allowed him to return to Paris where he still taught for some time. One could still count as a teacher of the schools of Paris Brunon (since Archbishop of Cologne). As far as the University of Paris is concerned, it can be said that it does not go back to Charlemagne and Alcuin, but it began well before the end of the 9th century. Paris, since under roman Emperor Julian who had established his residence there circa 350 A.D., had become a theatre of scholars. Already since before, the cathedral already had its school and then the monasteries that appeared also had their own (but they were not yet Carolingian-type schools but a a 'public school' only for the instruction of the youth of the city and for foreigners who came to learn letters). The first school of type Carolingian is mentioned when St Odon, abbot of Cluny, before the age of 30, went to study at the school of Paris under Remi, monk of St-Germain-d'Auxerre, who taught dialectic and music (either before the end of the 9th century or at the latest, in the first years of the following century). At the same time and perhaps even before, Hucbalde, monk of Elnone, known as soon as by the time of Charles the Bald, restorer of the schools of Reims (like Remi had been), had come to Paris and had attached himself to the canons of Ste-Geneviève and, in a short time, he established several schools there (some place this fact instead about 922 A.D., under Capetian King Robert). The university, of the medieval type, as far as it was concerned, only was to appear by the 12th century)
by the 9th century A.D., Bishop Hincmar created a episcopal school. In the 10th century, the school of the abbey of St-Vincent (bishopric of Laon) appeared. Roricon, Bishop (949-976) was one of the most learned men of his time. Such a scholar undoubtedly favored the studies (and Laon was part of the metropolis of Reims where the studies were 'so well supported' throughout the 10th century). Roricon had the main part in setting up a school at the abbey of the city of Laon. He had passed there the Institute de Cluny via 12 monks issued from Fleury and the abbot was blessed Melchalan or Malcalene, and the new institution took care to link studies and worship according to houses reformed by Cluny
by the 9th century A.D., the school was famous for the Gregorian chant. It has the advantage of being led for a few years, under Louis the Pious, by Aldric, since Bishop of Le Mans, who had been a pupil at the Palatine School. They wrote there the Bible offered to Charles the Bald with three hundred elegiac verses, a evidence that at the end of the 9th century, good books were still being copied and fine letters were cultivated 'as much as the genius of that time allowed.' In the 10th century, the school of the Cathedral of Metz appeared. Blidulfe had undoubtedly been of some help to, and Jean de Vendière studied there for some time. Mainly the science of chant, a area in which the abbey was distinguished from the reign of Charlemagne, was taught. At the beginning of the 10th century, it was Deacon Rotland, a man of piety, who presided over the exercises of singing. As the Church of Metz was later ruled by scholarly prelates, they had to maintain the good studies there. Are known like scholars, among others: Vigeric (for his science in general), Thierry (or Diederic; a great knowledge of ecclesiastical discipline). In the 10th century, are seen too other schools in Metz (both in churches or monasteries): St-Vincent (the master of the school was Adelbert, a scholar (a chronicle addressed to Bishop Adalberon with a list of all his predecessors); church of St-Sauveur (Deacon Bernacer was skillful in the science of chant and the art of copying; he had done a particular study of what was then called arithmetic); monastery St-Arnulf (Anstée, who became abbot in 945, passed into all the exercises of Gorze (which he had himself followed); he then had for pupil John (who succeeded him as abbot), author of a Life of Jean de Vendière (one of the best works of literature of the 10th century). The relief given to the school by John attracted the best of the city of Metz, but also made that students came from Saxony and Bavaria. The school then became a seminary of bishops and abbots
Micy (or St-Mesmin;) near Orléans) (bishopric of Orléans)
trained there in the 9th century A.D., two writers of merit, each of whom gave a life of St Maximim and some other productions, a proof that the letters were still cultivated with care. They did not neglect the good studies in the 10th century neither. Letald, a monk, is one of the most judicious writers of the century and he was educated there since he was a child, and, given his progress, the school had to be ruled by skilful masters. Letald was known towards the end of the 10th century and one of its confrères, monk, Peter, who also shone by his knowledge (he wrote collections of various histories he had reviewed and corrected, proving that to his erudition he joined in a critical sense). Gerbert, there too, was in a epistolary relation with some monks of the place and studies could improve somewhat from the discoveries of the master (among other things, Constantine, a scholar, who was dean and then abbot, and Albert, who was abbot in the 11th century, was then a pupil there (a letter to Pope John XVIII, one to John XIX)
by the 9th century A.D., Bishop Magnus created a episcopal school. In the 10th century, before Hiedemanne, Gerland had been Archbishop of Sens, also versed in all kinds of sciences. Gerland had been first a monk of St-Germain of Auxerre, and trained there by the disciples of Remi or Heiric. Candacher, a canon, about 850, passed for a great philosopher
after 850 A.D, Berard, Bishop of Verdun in 879, took care of the school of St-Vanne. His main disciples were Dadon (his nephew and successor, who wrote a few pieces in verse and prose) and Berthaire (or Berchaire), priest (who wrote a abridged history of the bishops of Verdun). Under Dadon, in the 10th century, at the abbey of St-Vanne, there was a recluse, Humbert, who had the reputation of being poured into the sacred letters. In the 10th century, in St-Germain-de-Montfaucon (Verdun; formerly diocese of Reims, later turned collegiate of secular canons), Humbert, from St-Vanne, took a interest into the monastery and helped to revive the studies. Bishop Dadon granted asylum to André, a great scholar and several other English scholars who fled from the Normans, and they continued their work there. At the end of the 10th century A.D., studies were still 'in some vigour' (a abbot, anonymous, gave 2 letters of erudition). By the 10th century, the cathedral school of Verdun was less crowded than the schools of St-Arnulf. According to the abbreviated history of the Church of Verdun by Berthaire, priest, at the beginning of the 10th century, it is seen that there were people who were studying solidly at the cathedral school. Dadon, at that time, was one of the learned bishops of the time and sometimes a poet. After 850, he had like his successor, Vicfride, another bishop of knowledge and piety (of a illustrious birth, he had the deeds of his predecessors written so he could take model of them, as that book also might have served a model for the one about the bishops of of Toul)

Schools Born in The 10th Century A.D.

located in French Auvergne, it was founded towards the end of the previous century by St Gérauld. The abbey received the doctrine of Cluny and became the cradle of the main renewal of the letters in the 10th century AD. Gerbert, the author of this revival, made there his first studies as Raymond, master of the school and then abbot, taught him grammar. Despite his ascent, Gerbert always maintained his connections with Aurillac, which contributed even more to the study of both profane and sacred sciences. He communicated to his first master the new discoveries he made in the mathematical sciences. Aurillac was also known for his art of copying. Calston, abbot of Figeac in Quiercy, had a book written of chant following the Roman rite, as that could be a treaty by Raymond)
Odon, the future abbot of Cluny, coming from the School of Paris (under Rémi), carried there the doctrine of Paris and became the master of the school
Abbey of Blandinbergue (or St-Pierre of Ghent)
in Belgium. Great reputation for science and discipline. Thus, St Dunstan, forced to leave England, his homeland, chose the abbey for exile and his two-year stay was useful to the letters. Womar or Wlmar was abbot after 950 and he worked successfully to develop the studies. There was no neglect of poetry then, neither under his two successors. Adalard, monk, had been trained in letters in the abbey and, in 1006, he wrote a life of St Dunstan
Abbey of Brogne (Diocese of Namur)
Heribert, before becoming abbot of the place in 992 A.D., had been tutor and chaplain of Emperor Otto II, which suggests his knowledge was large and that he likely inspired to his monks the love of the letters and there too, the reformation by Cluny brought discipline, thus good studies
Abbey of Castres (Rouergue)
with Durand, abbot around 950 A.D., at least theology was studied. But other studies were being studied too: Aige, one of Durand's predecessors, wrote the history of the monastery
St-Pierre or St-Père of Chartres
at the end of the 10th century A.D., the studies were even more solid there than in Lyon. Fulbert, a scholar, was the master of the school; after having long teached in there, he became bishop of the city in 1007. He had studied there under Gerbert and learned science and fine arts. He knew medicine, as he even gave medication but he stopped when he became a bishop. He taught grammar, music, dialectics and especially theology. In addition to the lessons given at the school, he spoke in particular at night with his pupils in a small garden of the chapel, speaking "with so much tenderness, that often tears cut off his word." He exhorted his students to "follow the great path" and walk without a gap in the footsteps of the Fathers. From the school of Chartres emerged many scholars who made the glory of the 11th century and who spreaded the doctrine of Fulbert in various provinces of the Kingdom of France. As soon as under Fulbert, Herbert was shining. He was issued from Jewish parents but he himself had been Christian from his childhood, a codisciple of Prince Robert, who since became King of France and even Fulbert at the school of Gerbert. He was versed in all kinds of literature and excelled especially in the ecclesiastical chant (the harmony of his voice gave it a new relief). Before Fulbert was able to teach, there was a renewal of studies in the school through a colony of monks who were sent from Fleury by abbot Wlfalde (who became bishop of Chartres in 962 A.D.). It was from the work of these monks that "came several manuscripts of the 10th century, which are found between those of the same abbey"
founded by 910 A.D. by Duke William of Aquitaine. Bernon was the first abbot and established the discipline with monks taken from St-Martin of Autun that those of St-Savin in Poitou had reformed. Under Odon, abbot in 927, Cluny, in a few years, became one of the most famous schools of all France and a nursery of saints. Odon composed a large number of works and showed the support that study brings to piety as that model was taken over by his successors down to St Peter Maurice. A large number of scholars and great prelates came out of Cluny and, throughout the 10th century, a large number of monks dispelled brilliantly the darknessess of time. Cluny's reputation also attracted bishops: Archbishop Gerald came to end his life in piety as others, like Turpion, Bishop of Limoges, already known for his piety and knowledge, came to perfect their knowledge. St Mayol and St Odilon at last, the successors to St Odon continued to be remarkable and popes, emperors and kings used their councils. The ways of doing swarmed from Cluny, including in the doctrine of the letters
Cormery (Bishopric of Tours)
a school where Guy, son of Count of Anjou Foulques and then bishop of the Puy, was educated in letters
Epternach (Luxemburg)
there was not a more continuous or flourishing school in the 10h century A.D. It was successively led by 3 masters which were scholars, Heribert, Rudiger, and Adelhaire. They trained a large number of disciples and left several books each. Marcquard, another scholar (various writings) was trained there since the beginning of the 10th century
Abbey of Gembloux (Belgium, Bishopric of Liege)
was in close union with Laubes and thus the uses of the latter passed there
under abbot Annon, since the end of the 8th century A.D., one was engaged in the study and copying
Abbey of La Réole
Gombald, Bishop of Biscay and the Duke William-Sancho, his brother, imitated Englishmen in their relationship to Fleury and submitted their abbey to the latter because of his reputation in terms of studies and of discipline alike
from there they to study in Luxueil but Langres had his own schools. A anonymous author, in a letter, urges the schoolmasters not to neglect also piety and pupils to progress every day. Brunon, Bishop of Langres (980-1015), who had studied in Reims and then acquired a great fund of knowledge, made himself a "capital" duty to re-establish the schools of his diocese. He took care of teaching himself his clerics in the sacred and profane sciences despite of his other tasks
Laubes or Lobbes (Liege)
long governed by the bishops of Liege. Bishop Etienne, Abbot of Laubes, developed the studies there as much as in his cathedral, and studies maintained themselves until the 11th century A.D. with a suite of scholarly men. Rathier, Bishop of Verona (where he worked to dispel thick darknessess of Italy) was trained there in 953. He became Bishop of Liege until 956, contributing to the schools. The most illustrious pupils, at the beginning of the 10th century, under Etienne, were: Rathier (one of the most learned men of his century but restless and turbulent; his reputation brought him to the court of Otto I where he shone among the other scholars; more than any other, he contributed to form Brunon, brother of the Emperor, Archbishop of Cologne, one of the most erudite prelates of his time and the most zealous to extend studies). Scamin, or Theoduin were also pupils at Laubes. When it was finally decided to give Laubes regular abbots, three distinguished themselves as soon as the 10th century: Aletran (eloquence, great sacred and profane erudition), Folcuin, Heriger (both known by their writings). Adelbolde, who became chancellor of Emperor Henry, Bishop of Utrecht, who had begun his studies at the school of Liege, continued to be trained in Laubes. St Burchard, Bishop of Worms (a collection of cannons) was also a pupil at Laubes. Olbert or Adelbert (especially known in the 11th century) was then directing the schools
in Belgium: Liege became famed for a basilica which was built to keep the relics of St. Lambert, the bishop who eventually converted the pagan Franks of the region, was murdered by local lords in 705 and definitively replaced Tongres as the see of the diocese. As the school of Liege is modest at the beginning, the passage of scholars close to the Court -like Sedulius Scottus about 850, along with Dermoth, Fergus, Blandus, Marcus and Bentchell- gives fame to it. Liege, then has a colony of Irish masters under the reign of Lothar (840-855). Such periods of prestige in relation with some famed people, did not last however. It's in fact, since the beginning of the 10th century above all, that schools -in plural- obviously emerge in Liege, of them the cathedral school of St. Lambert. Those schools had been born of the scholarly relations established between the cathedral church of Liege and the monastery of Lobbes, as it will be mostly by the end of the Carolingian period -after 950-960- that the schools thrive and really become famous. The initial push which was initiated, about 900 A.D. by bishop Stephen was due to that this cleric was parent to the Carolingian dynasty and the higher Frankish aristocracy and that he had been trained, at the Palatine School, under Charles the Bald, by Mannon, then Robert, bishop of Metz (883-917). Robert himself was either a co-pupil, or a pupil to Notker the Stammerer (about 840-912), in the school of the abbey of St. Gall. Notker was, at the same time, a poet, a hagiograph and biograph, a 'musicologist' and a liturgist. Hence he had those abilities transmitted to Robert, who passed them to Stephen. The school of Liege, by 900, as that part of Lotharingia has been reunited to the Francia Occidentalis, became, by the way, through the curriculum of Stephen, a bridge bringing to the western part of the Carolingian empire the knowledges of the German part of it! Stephen was mostly a hagiograph and a liturgist, being bishop of Liege between 901 and 920. He authored a 'Vita Sancti Lamberti', another bishop of the city. The fame of the school in Lière, and, mostly, of Stephen, likely was due to that he was a kin to the Carolingians. The schools of the Carolingian times, in Liege, passed throught the Dark Ages of the Middle Ages and during the first part of the 11th century. As Europe, at that time, was in a decline, Liege remained a famed center of litterature and art. Studies flourished in Liege at the end of the 9th century A.D. Francon, bishop, of great birth (since 903) brought the studies which existed in the palace of Charles the Bald, there where he had been trained. He became a philosopher, rethor, a poet and skillful in music, adding a lively genius, a singular gift to speak and a lot of virtue. He himself ran his schools for a long time. He was succeeded by Etienne, another scholar prelate (music, chant, liturgy, fine letters, but he wrote poorly). As he was also abbot of Laubes he supported the cathedral school as well as the monastic school and studies maintained themselves until the 11th century A.D., with a suite of scholarly men (Hilduin, or Tasso, Bishop of Liège and then of Verona and Archbishop of Milan). Rathier, pupil of Etienne at Laubes, was useful to the schools of Liege when he became bishop there in 953-956. Studies however had suffered during the troubles that had stirred the Church of Liege and he could not repair the damage in such a short time. His most learned pupil Everacle him succeeded him after Baldric and he succeeded in this rehabilitation of the schools. He also sometimes taught himself in the schools. As he was often called to go near Emperor Otto II or Brunon, Archbishop of Cologne, he sent small pieces in verse to pique emulation. The school still acquired a new lustre under Notger, successor of Everacle. Everacle was one of the most studious prelates of the end of the 10th century, zealous for the instruction of his pupils and he had himself accompanied by some of them during his travels to train them himself. He was careful to give them good masters and to provide them with all the necessary things for study, including books (he had been a pupil in St Gall). Several great men then emerged from the schools of Liege, which spreaded their methods in France, Germany and other countries even farther afield still: St Maurille, Archbishop of Rouen, Gonter or Gontier, Archbishop of Salzburg, Rothard and Herluin, Archbishops of Cambrai, Heimon Archbishop of Verdun, Hezelon Archbishop of Toul, Adelbalde (of Utrecht), Durand (who then passed to the Church of Bamberg where he had the liberal arts taught), Vazon (of Liege), Otbert, reformer of the canons of Aachen, Hubald or Hubold (who taught in Paris and then brought studies in Bohemia)
St-Martial de Limoges
that abbey joined with the abbey of Fleury around 942 A.D. and as Fleury flourished in the letters then, one might think that that association occasioned a renewal of the studies. There were still many old manuscripts from that abbey in Modern Times
Adson, master of the School of St-Evre, became abbot of Montier-en-Der and revived science and the monastic discipline
Abbey of Moyen-Moûtiers
likely a good school because there are still several ancient manuscripts from there, some of which contain various secular works
Narbonne (cathedral school)
Bernard, the nephew of archbishop Aymeric of Narbonne, was a grammarian and "philogramme" ("a man who loves and cultivates letters") towards 977 A.D.
St-Evre (abbey, Toul)
Adson, a monk of Luxeuil, renamed for his science and piety, although young, his reputation having arrived to Gauzlin, bishop of Toul, he brought him to come to the diocese in St-Evre and appointed him master of the schools. Those then became so famous that secular clerics came to study with the monks
St-Florent de Saumur
Absalon, a monk, a highly literate one, thus studies were not neglected
St-Pierre-le-Vif (bishopric of Sens)
flourishing studies there. It was one of the first abbeys where the reformation of Cluny was adopted
St-Savin (Poitou)
as the discipline there was good, one can assume that the studies were also. Children were raised in the letters alike in piety, like was St Hugues, of a very distinguished family of the country and then reformer of the Abbey of St-Martin of Autun
cathedral schools were illustrated by Victor, monk of St Gall, parent of Bishop Erkenbald. Throughout the 10th century A.D., generally, the Church there had highly educated bishops, many of which enriched the library of the cathedral and wrote productions of their knowledge, lke Richwin (divine letters, virtues), Rothard or Rudhard (most skillful prelate of the time in sacred erudition)
albeit less busy than those of St-Arnulf, schools were even better supported than in Verdun. Einolde, before retiring to Gorze, shone there by a erudition both sacred and profane as Deacon Berner (who had a singular talent to speak well and the gift of persuasion) was the master of the schools. Jean de Vandière was his pupil for the grammar, the first parts of Donat and compute. St Gauzlin and St Gérard successively Bishops of Toul for more than 60 years (922-994), strong scholars as much as the century allowed, took care to make studies flourish. Gérard, while teaching his people, took care of himself teaching his clerics especially at the ministry of the Word. He succeeded so well that there was no Church in "Belgium" with more lights both among clerics and laity. Gérard was also instructing himself as, after his daily labor, people were preposed to read while he was in bed. There were Greek communities in his bishopric
Abbey of Tournus
there was a school of which Absalon, monk of St-Florent of Saumur, was appointed the master of school when he retired to the abbey
St-Julien de Tours
a other monastery in a epistolary relation with Gerbert, which supported the studies there, as they had been revived by St Odon (of Cluny) who, in 937 A.D., had installed there his "Institute." Still at the end of the 11th century, Ecbert or Euvrard, abbot, had enriched the Gerbert's library
St-Mathias of Trier (Trier)
in the 10th century, Marcquard, of Epternach, was drawn from the latter place, to become the master of the school
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